1. Content analysis
  2. Interaction & participation

Pedagogy → shaped by social, cultural, political influences → in accordance with the dominant social class that has guided its interests

Bernstein, Basil B. (2000): “Pedagogy is a sustained process whereby somebody acquires new forms or develops existing forms of conduct, knowledge, practice and criteria, from somebody or something deemed to be an appropriate provider and evaluator – appropriate either from the point of view of the acquirer or by some other bodies or both.” → ped. lays emphasis on learning as such, not just the acquisition of skill or knowledge

Vygotsky → 3 phases of development

Phase-wise study → intra-functional changes not as important as inter-functional changes

Education → to provide experiences that lie in the ZPD of the learner; to extend individual learning

ZPD: zone of proximal development → experiences that lie between tasks which can be performed without assistance and tasks that can be performed only with assistance

ZPD = (A+) - (A-)

Instruction & development → not the same but complexly interrelated

Instruction Є ZPD → instruction must remain ahead of development → through instruction, learner forays into ZPD, evokes the maturation of functions within learner, learns

Scientific concepts – introduced by a teacher – form a coherent, logical, hierarchical system – systematic nature presents itself for voluntary control by learner

The interaction of scientific concepts with objects is mediated by other scientific concepts

Spontaneous concepts → acquired by learner on the outside of instructed contexts → describes “spontaneous activity” which is a formation of immediate practical activity


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